10/28/2012

Oranda Holland - Nanban

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Holland (Oranda)

***** Location: Europe
***** Season: Non-seasonal Topic
***** Category: Humanity


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Explanation


Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands.
The term Holland is also frequently used as a pars pro toto to refer to the whole of the Netherlands. This usage is generally accepted but disliked by part of the Dutch population, especially in the other parts of the Netherlands.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


oranda オランダ / 阿蘭陀 Holland


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In the WASHOKU SAIJIKI, there are a lot of food items
"from Holland"

oranda ichigo オランダイチゴ "Holland strawberries"
oranda jisha オランダ蒿苣  "lettuce from Holland"
oranda kiji kakushi オランダ雉隠し Spargel beans blossoms
oranda オランダ 豌豆 kind of endomame beans
oranda yaki オランダ焼き "Holland waffles"
..... a kind of Imagawa yaki waffle

. WKD : WASHOKU SAIJIKI .



. oranda sekichiku 和蘭石竹 "carnation from Holland".
..... oranda nadeshiko 和蘭撫子 Dianthus caryophyllus


. oranda genge オランダげんげ "Dutch clover weed" .
clover from Holland


. oranda shishigashira 和蘭陀獅子頭 goldfish from Holland .


. oranda tsutsuji オランダ躑躅 " Azalea from Holland" .


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Dutch learning 蘭學 / 蘭学 rangaku

by extension “Western learning”
is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national isolation (sakoku).

A meeting of Japan, China, and the West, Shiba Kōkan, late 18th century.Through Rangaku, Japan learned many aspects of the scientific and technological revolution occurring in Europe at that time, helping the country build up the beginnings of a theoretical and technological scientific base, which helps to explain Japan’s success in its radical and speedy modernization following the opening of the country to foreign trade in 1854.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内 Rangaku in Edo .




鎖国せる如く深雪の村のあり
sakoku seru gotoku miyuki no mura no ari

as though in the period
of national seclusion
a village in deep snow

Tr. Fay Aoyagi

Yasuda Hofu 安田畝風


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Akita ranga (秋田蘭画),
also known as the Akita-ha (秋田派),
was a short-lived school of painting within the larger Japanese genre of ranga, or Dutch-style painting which lasted roughly from 1773-1780. Based in the Akita feudal domain, it was headed by the domain's lord Satake Shozan and his retainer Odano Naotake. Though many ranga artists, most prominently Shiba Kōkan, produced works of European themes, the Akita painters for the most part painted traditional Japanese themes and compositions using Western-style techniques and an approximation of oil paints.


Odano Naotake”Toeizan Shinobazuike”(1770s)
Shinobazu no Ike, Pond in Ueno
Akita Museum of Modern Art

Some of the chief features that distinguish Akita ranga from traditional Japanese painting are the inclusion of shadows, the use of perspective, reflections in water, and the use of blue for sky and sea. In addition, ranga artists left little or no blank space on a work, emulating Western art traditions and going against East Asian ones, and used oils and resins in addition to Japanese pigments to simulate the appearance of oil paint. Many of their works feature a large foreground subject which displays techniques in light and shadow, with a small, distant, landscape, displaying an understanding of perspective techniques.

The school got its start when rangaku (Dutch studies) scholar Hiraga Gennai was invited to the domain, in the Tōhoku region of Honshū, to help advise the daimyō Satake Shozan on the management of the domain's copper mines.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Nanban art (南蛮美術)
refers to Japanese art of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries influenced by contact with the Namban (南蛮) or 'Southern barbarians', traders and missionaries from Europe and specifically from Portugal. The term also refers to paintings Europeans brought to Japan.

Namban art developed after the first Portuguese ships arrived in Kyushu in 1543. While Christian icons and other objects were produced, Namban byōbu (南蛮屏風) or folding screens are particularly notable.



Artists of the Kanō school were joined by those of the Tosa school in combining foreign subject matter with Japanese styles of painting. Canons of western art of the period such as linear perspective and alternative materials and techniques appear to have had little lasting influence. The persecution and prohibition of Christianity from the end of the sixteenth century and the Tokugawa policy of sakoku that largely closed Japan to foreign contact from the 1630s saw the decline of Namban art.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



"BIOMBO — Japan Heritage as Legend of Gold
Exhibition in Tokyo, 2007
biombo (a transliteration of byobu: a folding screen, or wind-block)
to underscore the historic importance of screen paintings as diplomatic gifts.
. WKD : East and West in mists of gold . "


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Worldwide use


oranda オランダ / 阿蘭陀 Holland


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Things found on the way



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HAIKU


. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

阿蘭陀も花に来にけり馬に鞍 
Oranda mo hana ni ki ni keri uma ni kura

The Dutchmen, too,
for cherry flowers have come
on horses saddles.

Tr. Helen Shigeko Isaacson

Here the word ORANDA stands for the people of the country, who had access to Nagasaki and once a year an ambassador came all the way to Edo to meet the Shogun.
This year it was just around the third lunar month, when the cherry trees just started to blossom.
The merchants with their "yellow" blond beards were a special treat for the Japanese onlookers.

Written in 1679/10 延宝6/7年
One source explains : Basho received notic that the Dutch merchant delegation were out looking at cherry blossoms, so he told his servant "Hurry up, get the saddle for my horse!"
The hokku has the cut marker KERI at the end of line 2.


Hollanders too
have come for the blossoms ---
saddle a horse!

Tr. Makoto Ueda


Hollanders too
have come for the blossoms ---
saddle a horse!


The Hollanders in the hokku refer to a procession of the Dutch consul and his attendants who came from Nagasaki to Edo to pay respects to the shogun in the spring. The hokku's first two phrases were borrowed from a well-known passage in the no play Kurama Tengu, which had in turn utilized a waka by Minamoto Yorimasa (1104-80):
hana sakaba tsugemu to iishi yamazato no
tsukai wa kitari uma ni kura oke

When the blossoms bloom,
will you let me know? I had asked
the forest ranger . . .
Now that I hear him coming,
put a saddle on my horse!

Tr. and Comment by Makoto Ueda


even the dutch
are here for the blossoms
saddle my nag!

Tr. Robin D. Gill



The Dutchmen have come
to watch the cherry blossoms !
put the saddle on my horse

Tr. Gabi Greve


. . . . .


In 1674 Basho was inducted into the inner circle of the haikai profession, receiving secret teachings from Kitamura Kigin (1624–1705).
He wrote this hokku in mock tribute to the Shogun:


甲比丹もつくばはせけり君が春
kapitan mo tsukubawase keri kimi ga haru

written in 1678 延宝6年

the Dutchmen, too,
kneel before His Lordship —
spring under His reign.

Tr. in the WIKIPEDIA !



Kapitan mo / tsukuba hase-keri / kimi ga haru

Even the Captain of the Dutch Commercial Office
arrived groveling
at spring of shogun-king 


This haiku refers to the fact that only Dutch merchants as foreigners were permitted to stay in the office built up on the artificial islet named Dejima in Nagasaki. In return, every year they were obliged to make a voyage from Nagasaki to Edo to call on Tokugawa shogun-king to pay their official respects. Not knowing other Western foreigners, Basho regarded the Dutch merchants’ long processions as absolute subjection to his shogun-king. The cited haiku sings of peaceful prosperity that reigned in the capital Edo at the beginning of the year.
The Japanese word “Kapitan” derived from a Portuguese word “Capitão” adds this haiku the novelty of Edo which had thus become slightly internationalized. The second line “tsukuba hase-keri” (arrived groveling) has a quite humorous nuance peculiar to the Danrin haiku school. Basho at this time in his career can be seen to be satisfied totally with Edo’s urbanism, moreover sympathized with it.
Tr. and comment
. Ban’ya Natsuishi .  
Modernity and anti-urbanism in Basho Matsuo  



kapitan (kabitan) カピタン 甲比丹 / 甲必丹 / 加比旦
Kapitein - Captain
German: Kapitän
The most important person of the Dutch delegation from Nagasaki to Edo.



Kapitein walking in Edo 甲比丹散歩之図

Look at more illustrations of the Capitan and the
Nanban 南蛮 Namban(Southern Barbarians)
visiting Edo and introducing tobacco in Edo:
source : www.jti.co.jp


. Kitamura Kigin 北村季吟 .


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冬薔薇遣欧少年のその後
fuyu sobi kenoo shoonen no sono go

winter roses
boys sent to Europe
and what happened afterwards


Kawana Masakazu 川奈正和
Tr. Fay Aoyagi




In 1591, the Tensho Keno Shonen Shisetsu. 天正遣欧少年使節
(The Mission of Youths to the West in the Tensho Era)


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Related words


. Place names used in Haiku  


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1 comment:

Gabi Greve said...

冬薔薇遣欧少年のその後
fuyu sobi kenoo shoonen no sono go

winter roses
boys sent to Europe
and what happened afterwards

Kawana Masakazu 川奈正和
(tr. Fay Aoyagi)
.